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This is a study of the water-raising wheels of western Syria from the aspects of sources, terminology, typology, origin, history, technology and architecture, and gives a survey of these installations, discussing their present state of conservation. By making use of historical, architectural and iconographical material, the study shows that Syrian water-wheels constitutes a particular type of water-architecture, which successfully combines the functional with the aesthetic and displays sophisticated forms of construction. These devices are visually impressive, present a variety of shapes and are of great historical, environmental and iconographical importance, being of extraordinarily accurate and detailed design. An attempt is made to present evidence of their ancient origin, and to gain an understanding of how their design evolved over time, the reasons for their significance and uniqueness, and for their great concentration in Syria.
Table of Contents
Abstract - Foreword - Chapter One: Introduction: 1. Syrian water-wheels: an age-old tradition; 2. Source materials and approach; 3. Relevant available literature - Capter Two: Open forms of Water Architecture: the Water-Wheels. Technical and historical aspects: 1. Structural and functional characteristics; 2. Formation and evolution of water-wheels - Chapter Three: Syrian water-wheels in historical sources: 1. The hydraulic norias; 2. The sqiyas and norias - Chapter Four: Syrian hydraulic norias: 1. Introduction; 2. Types of installation; 3. Masonry works; 4. Originality in design. An analysis of some case studies; 5. The wheel; 6. Observations; 7. Hydraulic noria in East Syria; 8. Installations in use in other parts of the world: a comparison with the Syrian typology - Chapter Five: Syrian sqiya and noria: 1. Introduction; 2. Masonry works; 3. The wheels; 4. The Muh?y'l-Dn sqiya at Damascus; 5. Observations - Chapter Six: Progress, Change and Sustainability: 1. The decline of Syrian water-wheels: hydraulic works in the Orontes valley; 2. Management of irrigation systems; 3. Sustainable development of water-wheels; 4. Preliminary proposal for renovating water-wheels - Chapter Seven: Survey of the installations found on the Orontes river: 1. Notes on the census; 2. Entries; 3. Summarizing tables; Summarizing data - Chapter Eight: Conclusion: 1. Terminology and typology; 2. Origin; 3. Regional variations; 4. Syrian water-wheel design; 5. Dating; 6. Design and landscape; 7. Re-evaluating Syrian water-wheels - Illustrated glossary - Bibliography - List of illustrations.
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