Classical Period

David R. Marshall

Rediscovering a Baroque Villa in Rome. Cardinal Patrizi and the Villa Patrizi. 1715-1909.

2015, 508 pp., 30 ill. col., 519 ill. b/n
21,5 x 28 cm
ISBN: 9788891309310
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  • Abstract
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  • Abstract

    Rediscovering a Baroque Villa in Rome: Cardinal Patrizi and the Villa Patrizi
    1715-1909 draws on a large body of archival material to reconstruct in detail the creation of the Villa Patrizi outside Porta Pia from 1715 to 1727 and its afterlife. This material includes building documentation, inventories, and above all the letters written by Cardinal Giovanni Batista Patrizi, papal legate in Ferrara, to his brothers in Rome, both dilettante artist-architects. These letters provide a unique insight into the decision-making processes involved in such a large-scale enterprise, in particular the hiring of artists and the decoration of individual rooms. These rooms included a Gallery inspired by the Galleria Colonna, a romitorio, or fictive hermitage, a Mirror Room anticipating those created later in the century, and one of the first Chinoiserie interiors in Rome. The Villa Patrizi emerges as perhaps the most important secular project in the barocchetto manner, a distinct design sensibility prevalent in the early decades of the eighteenth century that was oriented towards modern taste (to be found in Northern Italy and France), as opposed to the antiquarianism of Cardinal Albani, whose Villa Albani it faced across the valley. The book demonstrates the crucial role played by Giovanni Paolo Panini, later famous as a painter of capricci and Roman views, not only as a painter of the frescoes that decorated many of the rooms, but also as co-ordinator of the design of the more adventurous interiors, and his progress from employee to friend and collaborator of the family. We follow the fluctuating fortunes of the main building (the Casino) and its surroundings: from the terraces, gardens, and vigna of the original villa, through the acquisition of the Villa Bolognetti next door and the creation of one of the finest English-style gardens of nineteenth-century Rome, the almost complete destruction of the villa and grounds in 1849, its subsequent rebuilding to the same design, the subdivision of the garden in the building frenzy following unification in 1870, through to the demolition of the Casino in 1909 and the levelling of the site.

    Embedded in the dominant narrative of the construction and destruction of the villa are the lives of the individual members of the Patrizi family (including the women): their marriages, alliances, and their preoccupation with succession and inheritance. We learn how a Roman family organised itself between its principal residences: the Villa Patrizi outside Porta Pia, the Palazzo Patrizi palace opposite the church of S. Luigi dei Francesi in Rome, and the palace at Castel Giuliano. The wealth of evidence that is drawn upon provides a unique insight into the motivations of Cardinal Patrizi and his brothers, who was preoccupied with the signs of status appropriate to a cardinal, the constraints of etiquette, and above all his desire to leave a building that would enhance the status of his family, and would be a blessing and not a burden on those who come after me'.

    David R. Marshall is Principal Fellow, Art History, School of Culture and Communication, the University of Melbourne, and a fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities. He is a specialist in seventeenth and eighteenth century landscape and view painting, particularly the work of Giovanni Paolo Panini, Piranesi and Filippo Juvarra. His interest in architectural view painting was initiated by his research into the seventeenth-century architectural painters, Viviano and Niccolò Codazzi, resulting in his publication Viviano and Niccolò Codazzi and the Baroque Architectural Fantasy (Rome: Jan di Sapi Editori, 1993). He has published widely since on architectural view painting and landscape painting in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Rome in such journals as Art Bulletin, Burlington Magazine, Journal of the History of Collections, Artibus et Historiae, Storia dell'Arte and Journal of the History of Gardens and Designed Landscapes. He was the founder and editor of Melbourne Art Journal from 1997 to 2015, and in this role he edited (and contributed chapters to) monographs that include "The Italians" in Australia: Studies in Renaissance and Baroque Art (Florence: Centro Di, 2004), Art, Site and Spectacle: Studies in Early Modern Visual Culture (Melbourne, 2007), and most recently The Site of Rome: Studies in the Art and Topography of Rome 1400-1750, (Rome: "L'Erma" di Bretschneider, 2014). With Susan Russell and Karin Wolfe he was the editor of Roma Britannica: Art Patronage and Cultural Exchange in Eighteenth-century Rome, British School at Rome, London, 2010. Complementary to this monograph on the Villa Patrizi is his edition of the letters of Cardinal Patrizi (David R. Marshall (ed.), The Letters of Cardinal Patrizi 1718-1727', Collectanea Archivi Vaticani (Dall'Archivio Segreto Vaticano. Miscellanea di Testi, Saggi e Inventari VIII , pp. 143-520.).

  • Table of Contents

    Colour Plates
    Roman Villas and the Villa Patrizi
    Patrizi Naro Montoro Family Tree
    Part 1. The Cardinal and his Family
    Chapter 1.1 Patrizio Patrizi the Elder
    Patrizio Patrizi the Elder (1629-1689)
    The Dispositions of Patrizio's Will
    Patrizio's Will and the Palazzo at S. Luigi dei Francesidecommesso and Primogenitura
    Chapter 1.2 Architect and Patrons
    Cardinal Giovanni Battista Patrizi (1658-1727)
    A Villa in Albano
    Cardinal Patrizi as Patron
    The Brothers as Patrons
    Mariano Patrizi (1663-1744)
    Francesco Felice Patrizi (1665-1734)
    Costanzo Patrizi (1654-1739)
    Filippo Patrizi (1660-1733)Sebastiano Cipriani (1662-1738)
    Giovanni Paolo Panini (1691-1765)
    Attitudes to other Roman Villas
    Villa Catena at Poli
    Villa Sacchetti at Castelfusano
    Chapter 1.3 The Cardinal in Ferrara 1718-1727
    Family, Friends and Visitors of Rank at the Villa
    The Stuarts
    Visitors to Ferrara
    The Cardinal's Life in Ferrara
    Conditions in Ferrara
    The Conclave of 1721
    The Conclave of 1724
    The Last Six Months of the Cardinal's Life
    The Commission for the Silver Bust of S. Francesco di Paola
    The Catafalque
    Antiquarianism and Fashion
    Cardinal Patrizi as Collector
    Chapter 1.4. Ottavia Sacchetti and Patrizio Patrizi the Younger 1722-1739
    Ottavia Sacchetti (c. 1701-?) and Patrizio Patrizi (1684-1747)
    Discord between Ottavia and Patrizio
    Ottavia's Situation and Patrizio's Ailments
    Felice Trulli's Portrait of Ottavia
    Ottavia and Patrizio in Ferrara: Carnival and Villeggiatura
    Carnival 1726
    Planning the Lombardy Trip
    Lombardy, Venice and Bologna
    Carnival 1727
    Cardinal Patrizi's Will
    Patrizio's Will
    Ottavia in the Villa e Antonio David Portrait of Ottavia
    Chapter 1.5 Maria Virginia and Giovanni, Porzia and Francesco
    Maria Virginia Patrizi (1718-1788) and Giovanni Chigi Montoro (1700-1772)
    The Married Life of Maria Virginia and Giovanni
    Entertainments in the Villa
    The Villa during the Reign of Benedict XIV
    Maria Virginia Patrizi and the Masked Ball in Palazzo Farnese in 1751
    Maria Virginia Patrizi and the Villa Albani
    Vigna Silva
    Pope Clement XIV and the Stanza del Trucco
    Porzia Patrizi (1752-1835) and Francesco Naro (1743-1813)
    Part 2 Vigna and Villa
    Chapter 2.1 Vigna Patrizi 1650-1715
    The Site
    Villas near the Porta Pia
    The Casino
    Chapter 2.2 Constructing the Casino
    Building Trades
    Supply of Materials
    Paving Bricks
    Window Glass
    Main Staircase (Scala Grande)
    Service Staircase (Scaletta)
    Basement and Kitchens
    Spiral Staircase, Guardarobba and Roof Terrace
    Plan Comparisons
    Room Heights
    Blind Windows
    Part 3 Decoration and Function
    Chapter 3.1 Organisation of the Piano Nobile
    The Inventories of the Villa Patrizi 1739-1814
    The Paintings Collection
    The Nicoletti Drawings
    Room Functions and Door Curtains
    Window Curtains
    Ceiling Frescoes
    Decoration of Window Embrasures and Door Jambs
    Chapter 3.2 Anterooms
    Boiseries and Fixed Installations
    The First Anteroom
    The Bacchanals in the Second Anteroom
    The Taste of the Pope
    Chapter 3.3 Gallery
    The Nature of the Baroque Galleria
    The Gallery of the Palazzo de Carolis
    The Villa Patrizi Gallery: Circulation and Sources
    Mirrors and the Paintings by Raffaello Vanni
    Choosing the Painter of the Vault Frescoes
    Giuseppe Chiari
    The Tardiness of Painters
    Giovanni Paolo Panini and Antonio Grecolini
    Executing the Gallery Vault Fresco
    The Vault Fresco by Panini and Grecolini
    Furnishing the Gallery
    The Decoration of the Gallery
    The Frescoed Overdoors
    Pietro Zerman and Filippo Sciugatrosci in the Galleriola Dipinta
    Chapter 3.4 Stanza alla Cinese
    China and the Early Eighteenth Century
    All'Indiana and alla Cinese
    Porcelain and Lacquer
    Lacquer, Porcelain and Mirror Cabinets
    The Villa Patrizi Stanza di Porcellana
    The Fireplace: Patron, Middleman, and Artisan
    The Lacquer Tavole and Panini as Coordinator of the Decoration
    The Pope's Mezzanines
    The Hang of the Tavole
    The Remodelling of the Stanza alla Cinese and Chinoiserie at Montoro
    Chapter 3.5 Stanza delli Cristalli
    Mirrors in Roman Palaces
    Bologna and the Mirror Pilaster 1720-1721
    The Mirror Cabinet 1722-1724
    The Patrizi Mirror Cabinet and its Roman Successors
    Mirrored Enfilades
    The Renewing of the Mirroring of the Large Gilded Mirror
    Sconces and Tables
    Notes [...]

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